Why technology neutrality is much wiser than Technology Exclusion
In 2016 already, studies published by Norwegian University of Trondheim, NTNU, showed that emissions resulting from the manufacturing and recycling of the electric car and its battery are such that the most efficient ICE could compete with EVs on a life cycle perspective. These conclusions were strongly criticized by NGOs at the time of their initial publication, considering them as unrealistic and unreliable.
It appears that two years later they are now substantiated by the European Environment Agency whose study published on 22 November 2018, finds that electric cars “emit less greenhouse gases and air pollutants over their entire life cycle than petrol and diesel cars”. The EEA specified that less is “17 percent to 30 percent lower than from internal combustion engines when they are used”. The gap is surprisingly small and the 2021 target for CO2 in cars, almost 25% lower (95gr/km), is likely to already fill most of that gap with efficient ICEs.