The fuel manufacturers have developed a pathway. This will require an estimated €30 to €40 billion investment between 2020 and 2030, including the creation of advanced biofuel and e-fuel plants, increasing the production of low-carbon liquid fuels up to 30 Mtoe/y in 2030. Major investments could start in the next years, with first-of-a-kind biomass-to-liquid and e-fuel plants coming into operation at industrial scale no later than 2025.

By 2050, the total investment needed is estimated between €400 and €650 billion, enabling the availability of up to 150 Mtoe of low-carbon liquid fuels.

Add Carbon Capture Storage (CCS) for the capture of emissions in low carbon fuels production, and, in combination with electrification and hydrogen technologies, the transport sector could reach near climate neutrality.